Complex intelligent systems for low-rise buildings and cottages
The proposed standard provides the rules of development of technical tasks for designing a complex system of automated management of the whole engineering subsystems to ensure intellectual functioning of low-rise buildings and cottages: phone and computer networks, video monitoring and access control, transmission of TV and IR signals,uninterrupted supply, dispatching and etc.
The standard includes technically proven provisions directed to complete satisfaction of specialists in the field of engineering subsystems of low-rise buildings and cottages, and determines objectives and tasks of designing complex intelligent systems for such types of buildings. It establishes spheres of application of these standards, provides normative references and the phases of complex intelligent systems’ designing. The necessity of technical task for designing of complex intelligent management system is determined in general provisions as an integral part of the project.
The proposed methods will allow achieving maximum comfort conditions through modern technologies, while observing requirements to architecture, decoration and interior of low-rise buildings and cottages.
The standard can serve as guidelines for investors, architectors and specialists in the development of technical tasks on designing of complex intelligent systems of management of low-rise buildings and cottages.
Methods proposed for energy consumption calculation of buildings (BEC –Az)
Energy consumption calculation methods can be used to evaluate energy consumption of the existing and newly constructed buildings including residential houses, offices, hotels, education and research institutions, and medical and trade centers, etc.
The methods are developed to calculate:
- the energy consumed for heating and cooling of buildings;
- the total energy consumption of the buildings heating and cooling systems taking into account the losses and efficiency oft he sesystems;
- the energy consumed by the ventilation systems;
- the energy needed and consumed for the buildings lighthening taking into account the effect of sunlights;
- the energy consumed for hot water supply in buildings;
The main indexes to be determined are:
- annual quantity of the energy consumed for heating of buildings;
- annual quantity of the energy consumed for cooling of buildings.
BEC-Az has been prepared on the basis of EU and ASHRAE standard staking into consideration the corresponding norm sand standards of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
EN 13790 proposes three methods for calculation of the energy consumed for heating and cooling of buildings:
- Method for stable monthly/seasonal calculation,
- Method for hourly dynamic calculation,
- Method for detailed (extensive) dynamic calculation.
Regulations proposed for energy performance of buildings
The proposed regulations establish a legal framework in order to increase energy efficiency in buildings, implement measures against energy losses and excessive use of energy resources, and protect the environment.
The methods and provisions to achieve this goal are provided in 14 parts and 29 articles.
The following details of the existing and newly constructed buildings are considered:
- ways, standards,methods and minimum efficiency criteria related to preparation and application of energetic passports and projects in the areas covering buildings’ energy consumption such as architecture, design, heating, ventilation, conditioning, lighting, electricity and hot water supply, etc.;
- establishment of authorities of the building administrators who will prepare energetic passports;
- application of alternative and renewable energy technologies and cogeneration systems for the purpose of buildings’ energy supply;
- establishment of a country scale registry of buildings, implementation of training and awareness raising measures to increase people’s education and culture in energy efficiency.
According to the principles of the regulations, the measures aimed at
increasing of energy efficiency in the buildings under protection and also the buildings registered as to be of governmental importance will be approved by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
Outside the scope of these regulations are:
- industrial buildings intended for production activities,
- buildings which have less than two years of scheduled period of utilization,
- buildings having less than fifty square meters of usable area,
- greenhouses and studios, the storage houses which don’t need heating or cooling and similar constructions.
Automated single house water heating and hot water supply nodes in exchange for the centralized nodes
The proposed standards are developed for the connection of centralized heating nodes (CHN) of residential and public houses into automated single heating nodes (SHN). These standards can be used in CIN design in order:
- to increase the buildings’ heat supply efficiency through bringing hot water preparation systems nearer to hot water consuming areas, while increasing the effect of regulation of heat energy supply to heating systems;
- to simplify the details of heat energy demand calculation;
- and to improve consumer services.
The articles of standards improves and extends the requirements to heat supply nodes provided in existing regulations, such as CНиП 41-02-2003 and CП 41-101-95, particularly promoting mutual connection of all elements of SHN facilities and the heating, ventilation and water supply systems of residential and public buildings.
It is expedient to use these standards during design and installation of FIN, when CHNs are liquidated in residential and public buildings.
Building automated management systems
These standards are prepared by the experts of the International Ecoenergy Academy engaged in energy efficiency and alternative renewable energy sources’ development.
The standards is based on DIN EN ISO 16484-2 materials developed on the basis on cooperation of EU Committee on CEN standardization and the Technical Committee on “Building environment design” ISO/TC 205 and include the followings:
- General provisions
- Technical means
- Communication protocol of information transmission
- Communication protocol of information transmission: coordination protocol
- Projecting and realization.
Complex of standards have individual peculiarities and are designed to resolve the following tasks:
- Projection of all systems in building requires using of complex methods of automation of the systems of both everyday conditions (demands) and technical safety. Along with automation of life technical systems, functional integration of other systems (for example, energy supply, lightening, safety, lifting-transport facilities and the whole of building management systems) to create a complex management system of air heating, ventilation and conditioning, water supply and canalization is important. Such integrated system allows using of the advantages of mutually coordinated different systems. Therefore, this complex of standards can be served as practical guidelines for builders (constructors), architectures, designers, advisers and also the persons, who intend to use integration of different systems.
- During the period of building exploitation a need for renewal and modernization of networks, systems and facilities arises from time to time. The subject, purpose, scale and task of these changes are different. Various interface definitions are provided in these standards for the connection of Automated Building Management System’s (ABMS’s) network and other system networks in order to realize the system’s modernization through addition/change of some facilities while extending the building networks. Some of producers may consider the manufacture of products which can be further used as an additional element of ABMS.
- Client, designer, system integrator or the firms working on the installation of electrical-mechanical systems may arrange their activities in ABMS creation based on this complex of standards.
The principal goal of this complex of standards is accurate definition of primary
requirements ensuring effective and highly qualitative realization of ABMS. The standards may be greatly important to all specialists engaged in ABMS training, designing, installation, preparatory processes, putting into operation, maintenance and many other services and can be used for the following purposes:
- As a guidelines on the terms in the field of ABMS providing its meaning and details accurately and completely;
- As a guidelines in the development of ABMS without reducing new products, systems and applications while using functional potentialities of the system that allows preventing mutually reiteration of functions of various installations of management system and avoiding the terms having non-single meaning;
- As a basis for the integration of different program-technical means and systems (availability of informative data models and communication protocols of data transmission are essential for the integration of various parts of ABMS);
- As a guidelines for putting ABMS in operation and exploitation;
- As a textbook for training of personnel in ABMS.
Apartment heating units in multicompartment buildings
These recommendations regulate the use of private heat and hot water supply (HWS) systems in settlements with new multicompartment, blocked and public buildings. The requirements of the recommendations should be applied during installation of apartment heating units (AHU) with 15-25kVt and HWS with 35-55 kVt capacities.
The recommendations may be used during reconstruction of the heat supply system connected to central heating units (CHU), and installation of private AHU of central building format and connected to CHU, and also installation of local networks of heat supply systems.
The requirements of these recommendations can be used in the installation of capacious water heaters, fast water heaters, hot water accumulators and the heaters of HWS.
The use of AHU in building heat supply sistem will allow the followings:
- accellaration of the installation and adjusting phases of fundamental building objects;
- simplification of the scheme of inside heat supply systems;
- simplification of individual (single) heating unit facilities;
- carrying out of registration of the consumed energy resources and application of a dispatching (dispatcher’s) system;
- reducing of the operation costs of building object on the account of non-centralized hot water supply system and application of a local registration system of energy resources;
- increasing of the level of consumers’ heat supply comfort due to the local (direct) management of heat loads;
ensuring of hydraulic stability of heat supply systems when the hydraulic pecularities of heating circuit of individual apartments changes
Fuel gas consumtion norms for a unit of electirical and heating energy
Both the inceased level of global energy demand and problems of biosphere protection have made energy efficiency as one of the priorotized directions of fuel and energy complex.
Energy efficiency is determined by the amount of energy consumed for a production unit. Development of new standards and norms providing provisions for energy efficiency and energy use management is one of important measures of the present time.
The proposed norms have been developed to solve the following problems:
- reducing of energy losses and environmental pollution;
- verification of energy resource conformity
- carrying out of measures to avoid the use of excessive energy in various enterprises, institutions and objects,etc.
The following documents provide methodic provisions for the regulation:
- technical norms;
- documents intended for rating energycarriers’ efficiency;
- models, ways and methods of increasing energy efficiency on the account of effective use of energy resources and reducing their losses;
- documents that determine requirements for precise measurements, provides metrological control of fuel and energy resources during production, processing, transportation, storage and consumption phases.
Today, the role of natiral gas in fuel and energy complex of the republic is very important. The resources of natural gas is finit. Therefore, efficient use of natural gas is one of urgent problems.
The methods of rating specific fuel consumtion norms have been developed.
Regulations for the increasing of energy use efficiency and energy resource saving
The primary objective of the proposed regulations is to determine the rules and provisions related to more efficient utilization of energy and energy resources, avoiding excessive use of energy, and reducing energy cost and its specific weight in economy, and protecting the environment.
The scope of these regulations cover the rules of authorization of universities, professional organizations and consulting firms for the direction and management of energy related activities, the responsibilities of enterprises and entities engaged in energy utilization management, providing of supports to the development and implementation of the projects aimed at efficient utilization and saving of energy and energy resources throughout the production, transportation, distribution and consumption stages, and also peoples awareness raising in the mentioned areas.
In addition, the regulations provide provisions on the use of the energy wasted in thermal stations, application of biological and hydrogen energy sources and corresponding administrative sanctions.
The document contains 11 chapters and 36 articles to regulate energy management, granting of authorization certificates, energy efficiency measurements, administrative sanctions and others.
Regulations proposed for solar energy plants
The primary objectives of these regulations are:
- a) to estalish standars for the equipment used in solar energy plants to generate electricity including the rules of thier testing and maintaining;
- b) to provide provisions for the methods and principles of controlling of solar energy share in the total amount of the electricity generated in hybrid energy plants that use solar and other renewable sources.
The regulations have been prepared based on the principles of the law of the Republic of Azerbaijan “About Electroenergetics” from 1998.
According to the Article 5 an informative electronic database should be developed in the State Agency for Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources in order to implement the measures determined by this documents including:
- the values of total solar radiation on horizontal surface and on solar panels,
- the value of wind speed at maximum 10 metr of the earth surface on the plant area,
- the extent of intelligency of solar panels toogether with invertors,
- the amount of electricity and heat energy generated in the plants which use conventional or other renewable energy sources, and
- other relevant information.
Air change norms for residential and public buildings
The basic air-temperature indexes of rooms are: the content and quality of the inside air provided with heating, ventilation and conditioning systems and microclimate parameters.
The quality of the inside air is dependent on a number of factors including the existing pollution sources and extent of their effect and location, construction of ventilation and conditioning systems, and methods of management and exploitation quality of these systems, etc.
Inside air should be free of pollutants that cause discomfort and danger to human health. Various gases, vapuors, microorganisms, cigarette smoke, dust and aerozils are among air pollutants. Outside air, sources of various polluting substances, prodicts of technological processes and people’s everyday activities, furnitures, carpets as well as construction and decorative materials can be the origins of inside air pollution.
The existing air quality norms such as SNiP 41-01-2003 (Construction norms and rules), BCN (Construction norms on branches) and CN (Consruction norms)
and the documents of Azerbaijan state sanitary-epidemiological control are not comprenhensive, sometimes contradicting each other.
There are several air quality standards applied currently in EU, USA and other countries. A number of local and foreign regulations are used in the development of this regulation including ASHRAE standards developed in 1999 by US Engineering Association on heating, cooling, ventilation and conditioning systems (ASHRAE 62-1999 “Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality”).
The Regulation presents two methods of calculation of minimal air change rate to obtain permissible inside air quaity. Optimal air change rates for residential and public buildings, maximum permissible concentration of some radioactive gases and other toxic pollutants (hydrocarbons, Pb, CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, dust and phenols) are provided.
The Regulation will be useful to engineers and specialists dealing with design and exploitation of air ventilation and conditioning systems.
Ventilation of hot shops in catering enterprises
These recommendations are intended for designing of ventilation systems of hot shops of catering enterprises . The recommendations are developed based on the related legal and regulatory documents of Azerbaijan, Russia, USA, Great Britain and Germany.
During designing of ventilation systems the air exchange of hot shops are considered as a part of the whole air exchange of entire organization. Then, this factor should be taken into account when air exchange is calculated.
Guidelines for the rating of economic efficiency of heat supply investment project
These guidelines are prepared to provide practical assistance to specialists for the evaluation of economic efficiency durung investment projects’ development, and also to legal and natural persons who interested in the proqrams and investment projects aimed at modernization of communal infrastructures, energy and heat supply facilities,etc.
The gudelines include a system of evaluation methods and indexes of economic efficiency of investment projects.
The following basic principles of the rating of economic efficiency of investment projects are used:
- comparision of the project results (efficiency) with alternative investment variant;
- modelling of both the product and monetary flows. All flows should belong to a concrete period of time;
- evaluation of possible risks related to the project implementation.
The guidelines are designed to promote the solution of the following tasks:
- rating of economic efficiency of investment projects at their development stage;
- substantiation of the expediency of participation of interested enterprises and investors in the implementation of investment projects;
- carrying out of a comparative analysis of several variants of investment projects according to exploitation periods of technical facilities;
- expert examination of investment projects.
The quidelines will allow implementing investment projects easily and in a short term,
forming projects database on the basis of special softwere, automatic selection and examination
of investment projects using computer programs and intenet technologies.
Regulations on heat consumption calculation for existing residential buildings
These regulations provides provisions for the calculation of heat energy consumption in heating, ventilation and hot water supply systems of residential buildings up to 25-storey. The regulations are not intended to apply in the buildings with conditioning systems.
The methods of calculation of heat energy consumption for heating,
ventilation and hot water supply systems in existing buildings can be useful for the organizations engaged in heat supply, managers of housing funds, landlords and house owners.
The proposed calculation method will allow to determine the followings:
- heat energy consumption of heating, ventilation and hot water supply systems in residential buildings, when the values of outside climate parameters remain regulatory during heating period;
- heat energy consumption of heating, ventilation and hot water supply systems, when the values of outside climate parameters remain actual throughout the heating period or several times of the heating period;
- distribution of the amount of heat energy consumed by heating and ventilation systems among the buildings with different heat peculiarities;
- buildings’ heat peculiarities according to the measurements of heat counters;
- heat energy limits required for heating, ventilation and hot water supply of residential buildings.
Rulebook for the performing of state energy expertise
The main purpose of this rulebook is to regulate state energy expertise in various objects during their design, cosntruction and exploitation periods and increase the quality of energy market services. The rulebook comprises 3 chapters such as: 1. General Provisions; 2. The Rules of Energy Expertise Implementation and 3. Expert Results. In addition to these, there are 3 Annexes including:
- Energy expertise plan for the organizations which produce electrical and heating energy;
- Energy expertise plan for the organizations engaged in transmission and distribution of heating energy;
- Energy expertise plan for the organizations engaged in transmission and distribution of electrical energy.
The rulebook was prepared according to the 24th article of the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan “About the Use of Energy Resources”. The requirements of these regulations are mandatory for all organizations performing electrical energy expertise.
Terms and definitions used in the legislation related to wind energy development
The proposed standards systematizes terms and definitions used in wind power engineering.
One specific standard term is determined for each definition.
The terms are presented according to their number on alfabetical order.
The definitions can be changed, if necessary. However, their index, scope of explanation and meaning should remain unchanged.
The common technical definitions, which are necessary for the explanation of terms are presented in Annex.
The use of these terms in all documents and literature in the field of wind energy will be mandatory.
The stadards have been included into the complex of non-traditional energy norms.
Condintional signs for engineering design of heating, ventilation, and conditioning systems of modern buildings
Conditional graphic signs are used in all phases of heating, ventilation and conditioning systems’ design as well as during their installation, regulation and operation.
The existing conditional signs determined by ГОСТ 21.206-93 and ГОСТ 21.205-93 standards don’t provide detailed conditions for modern elements and equipment.
That is why, the companies engaged in design and production are developing specific signs to use in their projects and catalogs that cause serious difficulties for both the designers and users of inside and outside technique.
This regulation proposes conditional graphic signs for all elements and equipment that are lagerly applied in modern projects.
These signs are not the reiteration of the conditional graphic signs determined by ГОСТ 21.206-93 and ГОСТ 21.205-93 standards.
Methods for calculation of technological gas losses during operation ofmain gaspipelines
Development of Gas Industry’s Strategy of the Republic of Azerbaijan envisages “Increasing theefficiencyandreliability ofgassupply inthe country” and “Economical useof energyresources due to reduction of gas losses”.
Gas leakage happens as a result of violation of gas transportation systems’ compactness under high pressure and variableexploitationconditions. In addition to other elements, a complex of main reliability indicators of the system at the same time includes non-proof equipments, reinforcements and devices.
Due to the increase of gas reserves inpipelines,gas distributionstations (GDS), plug cranes, compressors, control measurement devices (CMD) and otherequipments the volume gas transportation system is expanded. Thus, the volume of gas losses is growing.
Naturalgasis not renewablefuel. In this regard, it is appropriate to define the effectiveways for rational use ofnatural gas, to identifythe reserve sourcesandto develop thestandardsbased onscientificcriteria.
Efficient use ofgas is determining by compliance of actual consumption with consumption standards in all areas.
Taking into account the temps of development of gas transportation system in the country and abroad, methods for calculation of technical losses in main gas pipeline and organizational-technical measures for reducing gas losses have been prepared.
The methods for calculation of technical losses in main gas pipelines have been prepared and developed on the basis of practical and scientific research results.
Regulations proposed for solar energy use
Azerbaijan has significant solar resources to develop industry and apply such energy sources in construction processes. In order to develop these Regulations the laws and regulations of many countries have been analyzed to determine basic solar energy organization and promotion schemes.
The proposed Urban Development Model Regulations are aimed at establishing a specific legal framework to promote and support technology applications that allow benefiting from solar energy sources in housing, commercial, public, industrial and agricultural facilities.
These Regulations are intended to promote application of solar energy sources for construction processes and aimed at regulating in a consistent and standardized manner municipal activities to promote the solar energy applications.
The regulations comprises 11 chapters including: General Provisions, Authorities, Solar Energy Use in Municipal Households, Registry of Solar Urban Developments, Registry of Energy Applications, Energy Use in Street Lightning and Solar Energy Application in the areas traditionally excluded from the central energy system, etc. There are 49 articles intended for administrative simplification criteria, so that the best efforts shall be made to make them easy to understand and minimize filings for citizens.
Regulations on the methods and rules of energy efficiency increasing in transport
These regulations providesmethods and rules of reducing fuel consumption and increasing efficiency standards in transport and also developing public transport facilities and establishing regular (smooth) street traffic in order to increase energy efficiency transport structure.
The regulations has been prepared according to the 9th article of the Azerbaijan Republic’s Law “About Energetics” dated 24.11.1998.
The regulations include 3 parts and 19 articles that provide provisions for establishing a reliable trasport systems through application of electronic traffic management, ekspress trains, autoparks, traffic signalization systems, consumers’ and drivers’ awareness rising, organization of special training courses on efficient driving technique, developing an informative database on the consumption of liquid fuel by various transport means, etc.
Calculation of parameters of smoke protection systems for residential andcommercial buildings
Smoke protection system is a complex of engineering- technical facilities intended for the protection against filling of outlets in buildings and closed areas by smoke and reducing smoke in buildings and closed places during fire accidents. The main tasks and principles of smoke protection are: to provide necessary conditions to facilitate safe operations of the state divisions of fire protection services in order to ensure people’s safety, to reduce material damages, to identify and liquidate the origin of fire during fire emergencies.
The requirements regulating the design, operation and maintenance of fire protection systems are included in the system of methodical and normative documents. Nomenclature of the closed areas and buildings that need fire protection system and content of such a system are provided in the legislation base system. Requirements (7.13130.2009) on the organization of a fire protection system and its individual elements are explained in the legislation on “Heating, ventilation and condition. Fire protection requirements.”
Depending on the functional purpose, size-planning (capacity-planning) and constructive design of buildings and facilities pumping-exhausting or exhausting (sucking) ventilation should be taken into account against fire accidents.
Depending on the number of storeys, fire protection systems may be designed to have: system for exhausting of smoke from corridors or enclosed places, combustion products clearing system, systems of preventing the filling of steps by smoke and pumping the pressed air into the lift shafts, step-lift, and step and lift halls as well as tambour (lobby)-lock and safety zones.
Combustion products clearing system should be installed in closed places provided with automated fire-extinguishing devices. It designed to change air in rooms (or closed areas) after fire extinction.
Constructive organization and characteristics of smoke protection elements of building and facilities must ensure reliable operation of fire protecting pumping-exhausting ventilation systems throughout the fire accidents and moving (evacuation) of people to safe zones depending on the purpose of fire protection measures.
“Alternativ və bərpa olunan enerji mənbələri (ABOEM) və enerjidən səmərəli istifadə (ESİ) sahələrində qanunvericiliyin təkmilləşdirilməsi və onun Avropa İttifaqının qanunvericiliyinə uyğunlaşdırılması ” layihəsinin texniki tapşırığına əsasən, mövcud beynəlxalq normativlərə və Azərbaycan Respublikasının qanunvericiliyinə istinad olunaraq işlənib hazırlanmışdır. Sənədin hazırlanmasında iştirak edən ekspertlər qrupuna aşağıdakı mütəxəssislər daxildir:
- Əliyev, layihənin rəhbəri, t.e.d. professor, Rusiya Memarlıq və İnşaat Akademiyasının akademiki,
- Tabunşikov, t.e.d. professor, Rusiya Memarlıq və İnşaat Akademiyasının akademiki, Rusiya
- Brodaç, Moskva Memarlıq Universitetinin professoru, Rusiya
- Xəlilova, k.e.n., AMEA Fizika İnstitutu
- Məmmədov, t.e.n., AzərbaycanMemarlıqvə İnşaat Universiteti
- Əlişiroğlu, bərpa olunan enerji üzrə mütəxəssis, Türkiyə
- Əliyev, sənaye mühəndisliyi və beynəlxalq bisnes üzrə maqistr, ABŞ
- Ağayev, t. e.d., Milli Aviasiya Akademiyası