> SOLAR ENERGY
SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY
Solar thermal energy conversion process is very advantageous in terms of energy owes a lot to modern technology, photovoltaic and expenses.
Active solar heating was greatly depends on three components: Solar energy storage system for distribution of heat transfer and heat of the sun, the solar collector.
Active heating systems can be divided into two categories: Weather systems and fluid systems. Differences in the heating system of solar energy in solar panels appear through the collection. Liquid fluids and draws its energy from the solar panels are used for storage of energy systems, air systems through the air.
Solar radiation energy systems usually are considering using fotothermal to turn next.
Active lower the temperature solar water and air cooling systems, which are included in :
- Flat disk or vacum collecctors of the sun solar water heating systems
- Solar air heater
- That Sun pool – which at the same time is as a solar collector and high temperatures store.
- Passive low temperature solar heating systems which that we can say this solar architecture
Solar energy can be converted directly or indirectly into electricity by the use of the solar electric technologies:
DIRECT: With the use of photovoltaic modules.
INDIRECT: With concentrating solar power.
Photovoltaics (PV) system
Photovoltaics (PV) is the field of technology and research related to the application of solar cells for energy production by converting the solar radiation (sunlight, including sun ultra violet radiation) directly into electricity using the photovoltaic effect.
The PV systems can be grid conected or off grid. Off grid system or stand alone systems are the so called solar home systems (SHS).
In the case of concentrating solar power the solar radiation is concentrated into a small area. This heats up a flud that is used to power a heat engine conected to a generator to produce electricity.
Solar Home Systems (SHS)
Solar Home Systems (SHS) are stand-alone photovoltaic systems that offer a cost-effective mode of supplying amenity power for lighting and appliances to remote off-grid households. In rural areas, that are not connected to the grid, SHS can be used to meet a household’s energy demand fulfilling basic electric needs. Globally SHS provide power to hundreds of thousands of households in remote locations where electrification by the grid is not feasible. SHS usually operate at a rated voltage of 12 V direct current (DC) and provide power for low power DC appliances such as lights, radios and small TVs for about three to five hours a day. Furthermore they use appliances such as cables, switches, mounts, and structural parts and power conditioners / inverters, which change 12/ 24 V power to 240VAC power for larger appliances. SHS are best used with efficient appliances so as to limit the size of the array.
A SHS typically includes one or more PV modules consisting of solar cells, a charge controller which distributes power and protects the batteries and appliances from damage and at least one battery to store energy for use when the sun is not shining.
They contribute to the improvement of the standard of living by:
- reducing indoor air pollution and therefore improving health as they replace kerosene lamps,
- providing lighting for home study,giving the possibility of working at night and
- facilitating the access to information and communication (radio, TV, mobile phone charging).
Furthermore, SHS avoid greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the use of conventional energy resources like kerosene, gas or dry cell batteries or replacing diesel generators for electricity generation. Further impacts of renewable energies, such as SHS, can be found in the Report on Impacts.
Stand-alone photovoltaic systems can also be used to provide electricity for health stations to operate lamps during night and a refrigerator for vaccines and medicines to better serve the community.
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Designed 5 MW solar-wind turbine combined electricity plant for SOCAR methanol factory
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